European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) credits are a standard means for comparing the "volume of learning based on the defined learning outcomes and their associated workload" for higher education across the European Union and other collaborating European countries. For successfully completed studies, ECTS credits are awarded. One academic year corresponds to 60 ECTS credits that are normally equivalent to 1500–1800 hours of total workload, irrespective of standard or qualification type. ECTS credits are used to facilitate transfer and progression throughout the Union. ECTS also includes a standard grading scale, intended to be shown in addition to local (i.e. national) standard grade.